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Music therapy

Synonyms/Common Names/Related Substances:

  • Active music listening, active music therapy, auditory integration training, Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music, "brain music" treatment, calming music therapy, contingent music, creative arts therapy, dinner music intervention, evocative music, expressive therapy, group chanting and singing, group drumming, Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), Heidelberg Model, Hemi-Sync®, improvisational music therapy, Individualized Music-Focused Auditory Therapy (IMAT), instructional music therapy, interactive music therapy, karaoke therapy, live music therapy, lullaby therapy, lyric analysis, mandalas, Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music), medicine song, MT, music and movement, music and sign language, music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation, music-assisted reframing, music-based exercise, music-based imagery, music-based intervention, music exposure therapy, music in therapy, music intervention, music listening intervention, music stimulation, music therapy, music-reinforced therapy, music-video therapy, musical games, musical motor feedback (MMF), musical training program, musicokinetic therapy, Orff-based music therapy, rāgas (Sanskrit), recreational music-making (RMM), relaxation music, rhythmic training, self-selected music therapy, soothing music therapy, tactile music therapy, Therapeutic Application of a Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field (TAMMEF).

Clinical Bottom Line/Effectiveness

Brief Background:

  • Music has been used as a tool of healing since ancient times, appearing in the writings of Pythagoras, Aristotle and Plato. Native Americans and other indigenous groups have used music to augment traditional healing practices for centuries. References to music for healing have appeared in ancient Native American pictographs, African petroglyphs and other ancient inscriptions. Healing songs and music have also been passed down through oral traditions worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners have used music for healing. Traditional rāgas ("melodic modes" used in classical music in India) have also been used to induce different states of mind for healing.
  • A widely-accepted timeline of "modern" music therapy may be disputable. Some scholars argue that it began in the mid-1700s, when Louis Roger's "Traité des effets de la musique sur le corps humain" ("A Treatise on the Effects of Music on the Human Body") emerged. Others contend that the modern discipline of music therapy originated early in the 20th Century AD, growing out of a regime used to treat recovering soldiers during and after both World Wars. Patients' responses led to further expansion of such programs and wider scientific curiosity about the possible clinical effects of music.
  • Music has been used to influence physical, emotional, cognitive and social well-being, and improve quality of life. Therapy may involve either listening to or performing music, with or without the presence of a music therapist.
  • Music therapists are professionally trained to design specialized applications of music according to an individual's needs using improvisation, receptive listening, song writing, lyric discussion, imagery, performance and learning through music.
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Dosing/Toxicology

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Precautions/Contraindications

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Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

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Mechanism of Action

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History

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Evidence Table

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Evidence Discussion

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Products Studied

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Author Information

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References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.